Health Care Spanish

Health Care Spanish Newsletter - Jan 4, 2016

By Evelin Maza Guia

In This Issue

Anatomy Charts
  • The Colon
  • Symptoms of Appendicitis
  • Terms and Chart Related to Gallstones
  • · Cholecystitis

Learning on the Go! 

Usually, the goal of this newsletter is to provide you with enough information to be useful, but not more than can be learned within the busy schedule of a health care worker. However, this week we are giving our readers a double issue.  You’ll find anatomy charts, additional vocabulary not found on the website, and more! Feel free to read the newsletter now and save them for later use such as with a patient or as a study guide for coursework. 

fecalith obstructing appendix lumen

Ascending colon Colon Ascendente
Transverse colon Colon Transverso
Descending colon Colon Descendente
Small intestine Intestino Delgado
Sigmoid colon Colon Sigmoideo
Ileum Íleo
Cecum Ciego
Rectum Recto
Vermiform Appendix Apéndice Vermiforme
Fecalith obstructing appendix lumen Fecalito obstruyendo la luz apendicular
Appendicitis is the inflammation of the appendix. Apendicitis es la inflamación del apéndice.
It’s caused by a blockage of the lumen of the appendix, most commonly by a calcified "stone" made of feces called a fecalith,  inflamed lymphoid tissue, parasites, gallstones or tumors.

This blockage leads to increased pressures within the appendix, decreased blood flow to the tissues, and bacterial growth inside, causing inflammation.

If this process is left untreated, the appendix may burst, releasing bacteria into the abdominal cavity, leading to severe abdominal pain and increased complications.

Es causado por una obstrucción de la luz del apéndice, comúnmente por una “piedra” calcificada de heces llamada fecalito, tejido linfático inflamado, parásitos, cálculos biliares o tumores.

Esta obstrucción conduce a un aumento de la presión dentro del apéndice, una disminución del flujo sanguíneo a sus tejidos, y crecimiento bacteriano en su interior, causando inflamación.

Si este proceso no es tratado, el apéndice puede estallar, liberando bacterias en la cavidad abdominal, lo que lleva a un fuerte dolor abdominal y aumento de las complicaciones.
mesogastrium and iliac fossa drawing

Acute appendicitis commonly presents with abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and decreased appetite.

The pain usually begins as vague and located around the umbilicus. As the inflammation progresses, the pain migrates to the right iliac fossa.

Deep tenderness at McBurney's point is a very common sign of acute appendicitis.

McBurney's point  is found over the right side of the abdomen and is one-third of the distance from the anterior superior iliac spine to the umbilicus (navel).

La apendicitis aguda presenta comúnmente con dolor abdominal, fiebre, náuseas, vómitos y pérdida de apetito.

El dolor generalmente comienza como un dolor vago localizado alrededor del ombligo. A medida que la inflamación progresa, el dolor migra hacia la fosa ilíaca derecha.
Sensibilidad en el punto de McBurney es un signo muy común de la apendicitis aguda.

El punto de McBurney se encuentra en el lado derecho del abdomen a un tercio de la distancia desde la espina ilíaca anterosuperior al ombligo.
drawing of duodenum and pancreas
Common hepatic duct
Conducto hepático común
Cystic duct
Conducto cístico
Common bile duct
Conducto biliar común o Colédoco
Vesícula biliar
Pancreatic duct
Conducto pancreático
Sphincter of Oddi
Esfínter de Oddi
Major duodenal papilla, ampulla of Vater
Papila duodenal mayor, ampolla de Vater
Duodenum portion of the small intestine
Porción duodenal del intestino delgado
Cálculos biliares
Lithiasis (stone formation) in the biliary ducts, especially the gallbladder
Colelitiasis o litiasis biliar: 
Litiasiso (la formación de cálculos) en la vías biliares,
especialmente en la vesícula biliar.
Biliary colic: the pain caused by the distension of the gallbladder that occurs when usually a gallstone
obstructs the cystic duct
Cólico biliar: el dolor causado por la distensión de la vesícula biliar que ocurre cuando generalmente un cálculo obstruye el conducto cístico.
Choledocholithiasis: the presence of gallstones in the common bile duct.
Coledocolititasis:  la presencia de cálculos en la vía
biliar principal.
Cholecystitis: is  an inflammation or infection of the gallbladder.
Colecistitis: una inflamación de la pared o infección de la vesícula biliar.
Ascending cholangitis or acute cholangitis: an inflammation and/or infection of the bile duct usually linked to the obstruction of the common bile duct.  Colangitis ascendente o colangitis aguda: una inflamación y/o infección de los conductos hepáticos y biliares comunes asociados con la obstrucción del conducto biliar común.

drawing of gallbladder with stones

inflammed gallbladder with stones

Mientras que la colelititasis y coledocolitiasis es la simple presencia de cálculos biliares en las vías biliares, el cólico biliar es el dolor normalmente causado por la presencia de estos cálculos biliares. Específicamente cuando se contrae la vesicular biliar al estar el conducto cístico obstruido. El dolor suele ser punzante, intermitente, localizado en el hipocondrio derecho y asociado a nauseas o síntomas de indigestión.
Debido a esta obstrucción y la presencia de bacterias en la bilis, las paredes de la vesicular biliar se irritan, inflaman y se suele desarrollar una infección llamada colecistitis. La colecistitis es identificada por el clásico signo de Murphy, el cual es dolor de aparición abrupta al presionar en el punto cístico, punto localizado en el reborde costal y que pasa por la línea hemiclavicular derecha.
While cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis is the mere presence of gallstones in the bile ducts, biliary colic is the pain usually caused by the presence of these gallstones. Specifically when the gallbladder contracts while the cystic duct is obstructed. The pain is often sharp, intermittent, located in the right upper quadrant and associated with nausea or indigestion symptoms.
Because of this obstruction and the presence of bacteria in the bile, the walls of the gallbladder become irritated, inflamed and often develop an infection called cholecystitis. Cholecystitis is identified by the classic Murphy’s sign, which is pain of abrupt onset when in the cystic point is pressed, a point located in the costal margin and passing through the right hemiclavicular line.




For quick reference in the ward.
For appendicitis click here (PDF, 1mb)
For gallstones click here (PDF, 1mb)

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