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The eye and strabismus

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The goal of this newsletter is to provide you with enough information to be useful, but not more than can be learned within the busy schedule of a health care worker. You’ll find anatomy charts, additional vocabulary, occasional feedback from subscribers, and more! Feel free to read them now and save them for later use such as with a patient or as a study guide for coursework.

anatomy of the eye

Anatomy of the eye and extraocular muscles

  • Iris
  • Pupil
  • Eyelid
  • Sclera
  • Optic nerve
  • Lens
  • Superior rectus muscle: it elevates the eye, and helps with intorsion and adduction.
  • Inferior rectus muscle: it depresses, and helps extort (rotate laterally) and adduct the eye.
  • Medial rectus muscle: in charge of adduction of the eye.
  • Lateral rectus muscle: in charge of abduction of the eye.
  • Superior oblique muscle: abducts, depresses and internally rotates the eye.
  • Inferior oblique muscle: in charge of extorsion, elevation and abduction of the eye.
  • Levator palpebrae superioris: elevates the superior (upper) eyelid.
  • Iris
  • Pupila
  • Párpado
  • Esclerótica
  • Nervio óptico
  • Cristalino
  • Músculo recto superior: eleva y ayuda a aducir y rotar internamente el ojo.
  • Músculo recto inferior: lo desciende, aduce y toma parte en la rotación externa del ojo.
  • Músculo recto medial o Interno: se encarga de aducir el ojo.
  • Músculo recto lateral o Externo: se encarga de abducir el ojo.
  • Músculo oblicuo superior: abduce, desciende y rota medialmente el ojo.
  • Músculo oblicuo inferior: se encarga de abducir, elevar y rotar externamente el ojo.
  • Músculo elevador del párpado superior: eleva el párpado superior

drawing of strabissimus example

Strabismus or heterotropia is a condition that prevents a person from directing both eyes simultaneously towards the same fixation point. The eyes do not properly align with each other. Strabismus typically involves a lack of coordination between the extraocular muscles.

  • Hypotropia: one eye is turned down.
  • Hypertropia: one eye is turned up.
  • Exotropia or divergent strabismus: one eye is fixated laterally.
  • Esotropia or convergent strabismus: one eye is fixated internally.
  • Hipotropía o estrabismo vertical: un ojo esta desviado hacia abajo.
  • Hipertropía o estrabismo vertical: un ojo esta desviado hacia arriba.
  • Exotropía, exoforia o estrabismo divergente: un ojo esta desviado lateralmente.
  • Esotropía, endotropia o estrabismo convergente: un ojo esta desviado medialmente.

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Written by on November 20, 2015